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Technical comparative charts

Mechanical properties of iron at room temperature
 Gray ironDuctile ironLow carbon steel castinhgLow Alloy steel casting
Tensile strength (Ksi) [U] 25 to 50 60 to 100 70 90
Yield strength (Ksi) - 40 to 60 45 60
Elongation (%)  [EL] <1 20 26 23
Hardness  (BHN) 160 to 210 1720 to 220 120 to 160 180 to 220
Charpy test - V-shaped notch [J] at 20°C 1.5 - 7 12 - 20 25 - 50 60 - 120
Crack growth resistance
(MPa   m)
11 - 19 45 - 100 50 - 175 50 - 175

 

Castability of iron
 Gray ironDuctile ironLow carbon steel castinhgLow Alloy steel casting
Ability to fill thin and extended cavities Excellent Good Average Average
Shrinkage free hardening Excellent Good Bad Bad

 

Behavior of Iron According to Temperature Gradients
 Gray ironDuctile ironLow carbon steel castinhgLow Alloy steel casting
Basic thermal resistance parameter (Eα/k) 24 67 55 89
Sheer thermal resistance parameter   [U / (Eα/k)] 9 7 9 7
Estimated thermal stress 1200°F Good Average Average / Good Average / Good
Thermal shock Bad / Average Average Good Good
Thermal constraints Mechanical endurance at 1200°F Bad / Average Average Good Good / Very good
High temperature resistance (Ksi) 4 6 9 14 / 30

 

Iron Resistance to Oxidation and Scaling
 Gray ironDuctile ironLow carbon steel castinhgLow Alloy steel casting
Resistance to oxidation / Scaling Average Good Good Good

 

Dimensional stability of Iron at High Temperature
 Gray ironDuctile ironLow carbon steel castinhg

Low Alloy steel casting

Shape stability Excellent Average Bad Average
Creep, (%/hr at 800°F, 25 Ksi) Excelent .001 - .01 Average .02 - .20 Bad / Average .05 - .5 Bad / Average .005 - .05
Resistance to swelling Bad Good Good / Very Good Very good

 

Degradation of Mechanical Properties of Iron According to Temperature
 Gray ironDuctile ironLow carbon steel castinhgLow Alloy steel casting
Degradation of tensile strength at 750°F <15% <15% <15% <15%
Degradation of yield strength - <15% <15% <15%
Degradation of elongation strength at 750°F - <15% <15% <15%
Degradation of resistance at 1100°F <50% <50% >90% >50%
Degradation of resistance at 1300°F >75% >75% >95% >80%
QI < 500 38000 55000 50000/85000

 

Other Manufacturing Characteristics of Iron
 Gray ironDuctile ironLow carbon steel castinhgLow Alloy steel casting
Machinability Excellent Good Average Average
Formability Nil Bad Excellent Average
Hardenability Very good Excellent Bad Bad / Low
Weldability Bad Bad Excellent Good

 

Physical properties of iron at room temperature
 Gray ironDuctile ironLow carbon steel castinhgLow Alloy steel casting
Density (lbs/in³) 0.26 0.26 0.28 0.28
Poisson's ratio[ט] 0.28 0.28 0.3 0.3
Modulus of elasticity(Tension) (Psi) [E] 13000000 26000000 30000000 30000000
Modulus of rigidity (Shearing) (Psi) [G] 5800000 9800000 11500000 11500000
Thermal conductivity (BTU/Hr/ft²/inch/°F) [k](Cu=2700 325 250 350 225
Thermal expansion coefficient(/°F) [a] 5.8 X 10-6 6.5 X 10-6 6.5 X 10-6 6.7 X 10-6
Damping capacity 40 to 125 3 to 10 1 to 2 1 to 2
Electrical resistivity(µ Ohm . Cm) [ρ] (Cu =1.67) 80 to 100 40 to 60 12 15
Magnetic properties (KiloGauss/Oersteds@100 Oersteds 10 14 16 16
Pattern-making shrinkage (%) 0.83 1.04 1.56 2.08
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